Top 10 similar words or synonyms for neutron

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Top 30 analogous words or synonyms for neutron

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Електронско неутрино As the bearer of these lines [...] will explain more exactly, considering the 'false' statistics of N-14 and Li-6 nuclei, as well as the continuous "β"-spectrum, I have hit upon a desperate remedy to save the "exchange theorem" of statistics and the energy theorem. Namely [there is] the possibility that there could exist in the nuclei electrically neutral particles that I wish to call neutrons, which have spin 1/2 and obey the exclusion principle, and additionally differ from light quanta in that they do not travel with the velocity of light: The mass of the neutron must be of the same order of magnitude as the electron mass and, in any case, not larger than 0.01 proton mass. The continuous "β"-spectrum would then become understandable by the assumption that in "β" decay a neutron is emitted together with the electron, in such a way that the sum of the energies of neutron and electron is constant.
Неутрино calculated that neutrinos carry away most of the gravitational energy released by the collapse of massive stars, events now categorized as Type Ib and Ic and Type II supernovae. When such stars collapse, matter densities at the core become so high () that the degeneracy of electrons is not enough to prevent protons and electrons from combining to form a neutron and an electron neutrino. A second and more important neutrino source is the thermal energy (100 billion kelvins) of the newly formed neutron core, which is dissipated via the formation of neutrino–antineutrino pairs of all flavors.
Електронско неутрино Паули на почетокот го нарекол својот предлог лесна честичка на неутронот. When James Chadwick discovered a much more massive nuclear particle in 1932 and also named it a neutron, this left the two particles with the same name. Enrico Fermi, who developed the theory of beta decay, coined the term "neutrino" in 1934 to resolve the confusion. It was a pun on "neutrone", the Italian equivalent of "neutron": the "-one" ending can be an augmentative in Italian, so "neutrone" could be read as the "large neutral thing"; "-ino" replaces the augmentative suffix with a diminutive one.
Електронско неутрино But I don't feel secure enough to publish anything about this idea, so I first turn confidently to you, dear radioactives, with a question as to the situation concerning experimental proof of such a neutron, if it has something like about 10 times the penetrating capacity of a "γ" ray.
Неутрино Antineutrinos were first detected in the 1950s near a nuclear reactor. Reines and Cowan used two targets containing a solution of cadmium chloride in water. Two scintillation detectors were placed next to the cadmium targets. Antineutrinos with an energy above the threshold of caused charged current interactions with the protons in the water, producing positrons and neutrons. This is very much like decay, where energy is used to convert a proton into a neutron, a positron () and an electron neutrino () is emitted:
Јадрена сила По неколку месеци од откривањето на неутронот, Вернер Хеинсберг and Dmitri Ivanenko had proposed proton–neutron models for the nucleus. Хеинсберг се насочил кон описот на протоните и неутроните во јадрото, преку квантната механика, ваквото приближување не било познато во тоа време. Хеинсберговата теорија за протоните и неутроните во јадрето била „огромен чекор во разбирањето на јадрото како квантен механички систем." Хеинсберг ја поставил првата теорија за јадрената сила на замена којашто ги спојувала нуклеоните. Тој сметал дека протоните и неутроните се сосема различни квантни forces that bind the nucleons. He considered protons and neutrons to be different quantum свери но од иста честица, т.е нуклеоните биле одразувачи на изоспинот квантниот број.
Неутрино Antineutrinos, the antiparticles of neutrinos, are neutral particles produced in nuclear beta decay. These are emitted during beta particle emissions, in which a neutron decays into a proton, electron, and antineutrino. They have a spin of ½, and are part of the lepton family of particles. All antineutrinos observed thus far possess right-handed helicity (i.e. only one of the two possible spin states has ever been seen), while neutrinos are left-handed. Antineutrinos, like neutrinos, interact with other matter only through the gravitational and weak forces, making them very difficult to detect experimentally. Neutrino oscillation experiments indicate that antineutrinos have mass, but beta decay experiments constrain that mass to be very small. A neutrino–antineutrino interaction has been suggested in attempts to form a composite photon with the neutrino theory of light.
Неутрино Although neutrinos pass through the outer gases of a supernova without scattering, they provide information about the deeper supernova core with evidence that here, even neutrinos scatter to a significant extent. In a supernova core the densities are those of a neutron star (which is expected to be formed in this type of supernova), becoming large enough to influence the duration of the neutrino signal by delaying some neutrinos. The length of the neutrino signal from SN 1987A, some 13 seconds, was far longer than it would take in theory for neutrinos to pass directly through the neutrino-generating core of a supernova, expected to be only 32 kilometers in diameter SN 1987A. The number of neutrinos counted was also consistent with a total neutrino energy of 2.2 x 10 joules, which was estimated to be nearly all of the total energy of the supernova.
Неутрино Nuclear reactors are the major source of human-generated neutrinos. Antineutrinos are made in the beta-decay of neutron-rich daughter fragments in the fission process. Generally, the four main isotopes contributing to the antineutrino flux are , , and (i.e. via the antineutrinos emitted during beta-minus decay of their respective fission fragments). The average nuclear fission releases about of energy, of which roughly 4.5% (or about ) is radiated away as antineutrinos. For a typical nuclear reactor with a thermal power of , meaning that the core produces this much heat, and an electrical power generation of , the total power production from fissioning atoms is actually , of which is radiated away as antineutrino radiation and never appears in the engineering. This is to say, of fission energy is "lost" from this reactor and does not appear as heat available to run turbines, since antineutrinos penetrate all building materials practically without interaction.
Неутрино Since then, various detection methods have been used. Super Kamiokande is a large volume of water surrounded by photomultiplier tubes that watch for the Cherenkov radiation emitted when an incoming neutrino creates an electron or muon in the water. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is similar, but uses heavy water as the detecting medium, which uses the same effects, but also allows the additional reaction any-flavor neutrino photo-dissociation of deuterium, resulting in a free neutron which is then detected from gamma radiation after chlorine-capture. Other detectors have consisted of large volumes of chlorine or gallium which are periodically checked for excesses of argon or germanium, respectively, which are created by electron-neutrinos interacting with the original substance. MINOS uses a solid plastic scintillator coupled to photomultiplier tubes, while Borexino uses a liquid pseudocumene scintillator also watched by photomultiplier tubes and the proposed NOνA detector will use liquid scintillator watched by avalanche photodiodes. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory uses of the Antarctic ice sheet near the south pole with photomultiplier tubes distributed throughout the volume.