Top 10 similar words or synonyms for studies

experiments    0.832842

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trials    0.729484

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observations    0.704282

study    0.674199

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researchers    0.641976

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Top 30 analogous words or synonyms for studies

Article Example
Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies Theological Studies (Teologiese Studies in Afrikaans; previously also known as Hervormde Teologiese Studies) is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering interfaith theological research. It has a broad scope, publishing on aspects of religious studies, philosophy, ancient languages, practical theology, sociology, and ethics. In 2009, the journal "Practical Theology in South Africa" was merged into "Theological Studies", which became an official journal of the Society for Practical Theology in South Africa.
Canadian studies Most universities that offer the discipline recommend that students take a double major (e.g. Political Science, International Relations) or French, if not included in the course. Some careers for students who take Canadian studies include the foreign service and working at Canadian embassies or the foreign embassies in Canada.
Translation studies Translation studies is an academic interdiscipline dealing with the systematic study of the theory, description and application of translation, interpreting, and localization.
Translation studies Historically, translation studies has long been "prescriptive" (telling translators how to translate), to the point that discussions of translation that were not prescriptive were generally not considered to be about translation at all. When historians of translation studies trace early Western thought about translation, for example, they most often set the beginning at Cicero's remarks on how he used translation from Greek to Latin to improve his oratorical abilities—an early description of what Jerome ended up calling sense-for-sense translation. The descriptive history of interpreters in Egypt provided by Herodotus several centuries earlier is typically not thought of as translation studies—presumably because it does not tell translators how to translate. In China, the discussion on how to translate originated with the translation of Buddhist sutras during the Han Dynasty.
Translation studies During the 1950s and 1960s, systematic linguistic-oriented studies of translation began to appear. In 1958, the French linguists Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet carried out a contrastive comparison of French and English. In 1964, Eugene Nida published "Toward a Science of Translating", a manual for Bible translation influenced to some extent by Harris's transformational grammar. In 1965, John C. Catford theorized translation from a linguistic perspective. In the 1960s and early 1970s, the Czech scholar Jiří Levý and the Slovak scholars Anton Popovič and František Miko worked on the stylists of literary translation.
Translation studies Descriptive translation studies (a term coined after Toury's 1995 book "Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond") aims at building an empirical descriptive discipline, to fill one section of the Holmes map. The idea that scientific methodology could be applicable to cultural products had been developed by the Russian Formalists in the early years of the 20th century, and had been recovered by various researchers in Comparative Literature. It was now applied to literary translation. Part of this application was the theory of polysystems (Even-Zohar 1990) in which translated literature is seen as a sub-system of the receiving or target literary system. Gideon Toury bases his theory on the need to consider translations "facts of the target culture" for the purposes of research. The concepts of "manipulation" and "patronage" have also been developed in relation to literary translations.
Translation studies Postcolonial studies look at translations between a metropolis and former colonies, or within complex former colonies. They radically question the assumption that translation occurs between cultures and languages that are radically separated.
Translation studies Non-professional translation refers to the translation activities performed by translators who are not working professionally, usually in ways made possible by the Internet. These practices have mushroomed with the recent democratization of technology and the popularization of the Internet. Volunteer translation initiatives have emerged all around the world, and deal with the translations of various types of written and multimedia products.
Translation studies The discipline of Interpreting Studies is often referred to as the sister of Translation Studies. This is due to the similarities between the two languages, consisting in the transfer of ideas from one language into another. Indeed, interpreting as an activity was long seen as a specialized form of translation, before scientifically founded Interpreting Studies emancipated gradually from Translation Studies in the second half of the 20th century. While they were strongly oriented towards the theoretic framework of Translation Studies, Interpreting Studies have always been concentrating on the practical and pedagogical aspect of the activity. This led to the steady emancipation of the discipline and the consecutive development of a separate theoretical framework based - as are Translation Studies - on interdisciplinary premises. Interpreting Studies have developed several approaches and undergone various paradigm shifts, leading to the most recent surge of sociological studies of interpreters and their work(ing conditions).
Translation studies A second source of conflict rises from the breach between theory and practice. As the prescriptivism of the earlier studies gives room to descriptivism and theorization, professionals see less applicability of the studies. At the same time, university research assessment places little if any importance on translation practice.