Top 10 similar words or synonyms for georgics

eclogues    0.870973

aeneid    0.843315

theocritus    0.807287

bucolics    0.806317

propertius    0.795680

nemesianus    0.784333

hexameters    0.769091

scholia    0.756853

argonautica    0.756438

tibullus    0.755570

Top 30 analogous words or synonyms for georgics

Article Example
Georgics Book four, a tonal counterpart to Book two, is divided approximately in half; the first half (1–280) is didactic and deals with the life and habits of bees, supposedly a model for human society. Bees resemble man in that they labor, are devoted to a king and give their lives for the sake of the community, but they lack the arts and love. In spite of their labor the bees perish and the entire colony dies. The restoration of the bees is accomplished by bugonia, spontaneous rebirth from the carcass of an ox. This process is described twice in the second half (281–568) and frames the Aristaeus epyllion beginning at line 315. The tone of the book changes from didactic to epic and elegiac in this epyllion, which contains within it the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. Aristaeus, after losing his bees, descends to the home of his mother, the nymph Cyrene, where he is given instructions on how to restore his colonies. He must capture the seer, Proteus, and force him to reveal which divine spirit he angered and how to restore his bee colonies. After binding Proteus (who changes into many forms to no avail), Aristaeus is told by the seer that he angered the nymphs by causing the death of the nymph Eurydice, wife of Orpheus. Proteus describes the descent of Orpheus into the underworld to retrieve Eurydice, the backward look that caused her return to Tartarus, and at last Orpheus' death at the hands of the Ciconian women. Book four concludes with an eight-line sphragis or seal in which Virgil contrasts his life of poetry with that of Octavian the general.
Georgics The two predominant philosophical schools in Rome during Virgil's lifetime were Stoicism and Epicureanism. Of these two, the Epicurean strain is predominant not only in the "Georgics" but also in Virgil's social and intellectual milieu. Varius Rufus, a close friend of Virgil and the man who published the "Aeneid" after Virgil's death, had Epicurean tastes, as did Horace and his patron Maecenas.
Georgics The philosophical text with the greatest influence on the "Georgics" as a whole was Lucretius' Epicurean epic "De Rerum Natura". G. B. Conte notes, citing the programmatic statement in "Georgics" 2.490–502, which draws from "De Rerum Natura" 1.78–9, "the basic impulse for the "Georgics" came from a dialogue with Lucretius." Likewise, David West remarks in his discussion of the plague in the third book, Virgil is "saturated with the poetry of Lucretius, and its words, phrases, thought and rhythms have merged in his mind, and become transmuted into an original work of poetic art."
Georgics In a highly influential article Anderson debunked this view, and it is now generally believed that there were not Laudes Galli and that the Orpheus episode is original. Generally, arguments against the view above question Servius' reliability, citing the possibility that he confused the end of the "Georgics" with the end of the Eclogues, which does make mention of Gallus. Further, they question its validity based on chronological evidence: the "Georgics" would have been finished a number of years before the disgrace and suicide of Gallus, and so one would expect more evidence of an alternative version of the end of the poem—or at least more sources mentioning it. Instead, the Orpheus episode is here understood as an integral part of the poem that articulates or encapsulates its ethos by reinforcing many ideas or reintroducing and problematizing tensions voiced throughout the text. The range of scholarship and interpretations offered is vast, and the arguments range from optimistic or pessimistic readings of the poem to notions of labor, Epicureanism, and the relationship between man and nature.
Georgics For a full listing of all the repetitions found within the "Aeneid" and corresponding line numbers in the "Georgics", see Briggs, W. Ward, 1982. "Lines Repeated from the "Georgics" in the "Aeneid"." "Classical Journal". 77: 130–147. Also Briggs, W. Ward, 1980, "Narrative and Simile from the Georgics in the Aeneid" (Leiden: Brill).
Georgics The work on "Georgics" was launched when agriculture had become a science and Varro had already published his "Res rusticae", on which Virgil relied as a source—a fact already recognized by the commentator Servius. Virgil’s scholarship on his predecessors produced an extensive literary reaction by the following generations of authors. Seneca's account that "Virgil ... aimed, not to teach the farmer, but to please the reader," underlines that Virgil's poetic and philosophic themes were abounding in his hexameters (Sen., "Moral Letter" 86.15).
Georgics Dryden’s 1697 poetic translation of Virgil's "Georgics" sparked a renewed interest in agricultural poetry and country life amongst the more educated classes during the 18th century. In England poets wrote their own Virgilian styled georgics and country themed pieces with an emphasis on withdrawal from city life, the rustic arts, and an embracement of a happy life on the country estate. Dutch influence on English farming also paved a way for the poem’s rebirth since Roman farming practices still prevailed in the Netherlands. English farmers had a go at imitating what they thought were genuine Virgilian agricultural techniques. In 1724 the poet William Benson wrote, "There is more of Virgil’s husbandry in England at this instant than in Italy itself." Virgilian-style farming manuals finally gave way to the agricultural revolution, which supplanted their use with technical graphs and statistics. Everywhere throughout Europe agriculture underwent a change as the long-standing ancient influence was replaced by scientific discoveries.
Georgics Virgil begins his poem with a summary of the four books, followed by a prayer to various agricultural deities as well as Augustus himself. It takes as its model the work on farming by Varro, but differs from it in important ways. Numerous technical passages fill out the first half of Book 1; of particular interest are lines 160–175, where Virgil describes the plow. In the succession of ages, whose model is ultimately Hesiod, the age of Jupiter and its relation to the golden age and the current age of man are crafted with deliberate tension. Of chief importance is the contribution of labor to the success or failure of mankind’s endeavors, agricultural or otherwise. The book comes to one climax with the description of a great storm in lines 311–50, which brings all of man’s efforts to naught. After detailing various weather-signs, Virgil ends with an enumeration of the portents associated with Caesar’s assassination and civil war; only Octavian offers any hope of salvation.
Georgics Virgil's model for composing a didactic poem in hexameters is the archaic Greek poet Hesiod, whose poem "Works and Days" shares with the "Georgics" the themes of man's relationship to the land and the importance of hard work. The Hellenistic poet Nicander's lost "Georgics" may also be an important influence. Virgil used other Greek writers as models and sources, some for technical information, including the Hellenistic poet Aratus for astronomy and meteorology, Nicander for information about snakes, the philosopher Aristotle for zoology, and Aristotle's student Theophrastus for botany, and others, such as the Hellenistic poet Callimachus for poetic and stylistic considerations. The Greek literary tradition from Homer on also serves as an important source for Virgil's use of mythological detail and digression.
Georgics Beginning with Caesar's assassination in 44 BC and ending with Octavian's victory over Anthony and Cleopatra at Actium in 31 BC, Rome had been engaged in a series of almost constant civil wars. After almost 15 years of political and social upheaval, Octavian, the sole surviving member of the Second Triumvirate, became firmly established as the new leader of the Roman world. Under Octavian, Rome enjoyed a long period of relative peace and prosperity. However, Octavian's victory at Actium also sounded the death knell of the Republic. With Octavian as the sole ruler of the Roman world, the Roman Empire was born.